Flora and Vegetation

      According to S. Rivas Martmez, from the phyto-geographic point of view, this territory belongs to the Holarctic Empire, Eurosiberiana region, Carpatica province, East-Carpathian District. 
      The floral structure of these mountains (floral elements) shows their floral zoning. 
      The botanic researches carried out so far prove the framing of this territory in the general complex of the Carpathian flora characteristic to the East Carpathians with high biodiversity. 
      Up to now a total of 1265 taxons were identified, belonging to 217 families represented by:

  • 169 macromicet taxons (Mycobiota) of 34 families
  • 128 lichen taxons of 47 families
  • 286 bnophyte taxons of 48 families
  • 682 cormophyte taxons of 88 families


      In the Maramures Mountains, mycological researches were not very frequent and they only refer to macromictes, while the micromicets have not been studied so far. As for the Ukrainian bordering reservations, micromicets were studied in detail. 
      Up to now 169 macromicet taxons have been identified, grouped in 2 classes - Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes, that belong to 34 families. The following families have the greatest share: Corticiaceae, Tricholomataceae, Russulaceae, Tremellaceae, Boletaceae so on and so forth. 
      A thorough analysis of this reduced number of species (based upon biological forms and ecological categories) could not supply a real information material on the existing fungi on this area. Nevertheless, we distinguish certain species of mushrooms with high nutritional value, some of them in big quantities. The following species of mushrooms can be found: Amanita rubescens, Armillariella mellea, Boletus aestivalis, Boletus edulis, Calvatia utriformis, Cantharellus cybarius, Hydnum repandum, Laccaria laccata, Lactarius glaucescens, Lactarius deterrimus, Leccinum griseum, Kuehneromyces mutabilis, Macrolepiota procera, Marasmius oreades, Russula cyanoxantha, Russula virescens, Xerocomus badius, Xerocomus crysentheron so on and so forth. 
      There are also poisonous fungi, among which: Amanita citrina, Amanita muscaria, Anellaria semiovata, Hypholoma fasciculare, Hypholoma sublateritium, Lactarius vellereus, Lepiota aspera, Paxillus filamentosus, Paxillus involutus, Russula foetens, Russula emetica, Tricholoma saponaceum so on and so forth. 
      Even though the known species are not in a great number, some rarities have been identified, such as: Exobasidium rhododendri (Muntii Serban), Mutinus caninus (Nacladovati), Phaeolepiota aurea (on the ratchel of the Luhei river, under alder trees, amongst nettles; on the pasnnea subalpina Poloninca, amongst nettles, on the Rica Valley, in big groups); they were found in Maramures in other two places and in 6 resorts in the whole country. 
      According to bibliographic (herbal-related) data and to our own observations, we can classify the macromicets found in the Maramures Mountains in the following ecological categories: humicole and lignicole saprophyte, micorizante silvicole, as well as saproparasite and parasite. 


      The identified lichen flora includes 128 taxons belonging to 68 species and 47 families. 
      The families with the greatest number of species are as follows: Parmeliaceae, Verrucariaceae, Peltigeraceae, Cladoniaceae. 
      Depending on the sublayer on which species were collected here, the following groups can be identified: epiphyte lichens (corticoli and lignicoli), saxicoli, tericoli and muscicoli. 
      From the morphological point of view, there are different shares of foliacei, crustacean and fruticulos lichens; in the Kuzi Massif there are numerous species of the foliacei group, in the Pop Ivan Massif the crustacean lichens are better represented (40) (due to the cliffs). 
      The lichens are extremely sensitive to the air polluting factors, they can even be used as air pollution indicators. The rich lichen flora proves that the area is not polluted so far. 


      Due to their geological structure, their orography and favorable pedoclimatic conditions, the Maramures Mountains provide the germination and conservation of a rich bryological flora. 
      Researches carried out in these mountains led to the identification of different Bryophyte, a significant number of glacial, arctic, alpine relicts which are rare species in the bryoflora of our country, some of them with disjoint features. Here are some of the most significant and rare bryophyte species, with bryogeographical elements such as: relicts - Buxbaumia aphylla L. - of Pop Ivan, altitude 1800 m, exp. S - V. under Pinus mugo and Juniperus communis; Tetraplodon angustatus (Hedw.)B. et S. - of Pop Ivan, sub-alpine area, Plaghiotecium undulatum (Hedw.) B.S. et G. - of Pop Ivan, Runcu, Kuzi, Polytrichum norvegicum Hedw. (=P. sexangulare Bnd), Schistostega pennata Mohr. (=8. osmundaceea (Drehs.), both in the Pop Ivan Massif. 
      We consider extremely interesting the following elements among the boreal and alpine-boreal: Lophesia heterocolpos, Anastrophyllum michauxii, Cratoneuron decipiens, Hylocomium pyrenaicum, Kiareia blyttii, Mnium thomsonii, Andreae rothii. Mountainous - circumpolar element with boreal character: Timnia bavarica; circumpolar with alpine character: Desmatodon latifolius, Rhacomitrium sudeticum, mountainous to alpine: Rhacomitrium heterostichum, circumpolar mountainous: Riccardia palmata, Trichocolea tomentella, Sphenolobus minutus, Colypogeia trichomanis, Lophozia wenzelii, Nowelia curvifolia. 
      Mosses have a great ecological and phyto-historical importance. The compact moss layers in the superior mountainous storey store in their body the rain water like a "water tank" and then let it slowly flow into the freshwater, thus preventing floods, the rapid flow of torrents, the washing and erosion of the soil. 


      Most of the flora-related and phytocenologic datarefer to the Cromophyte flora and vegetation. 682 cormophyte taxons represented by species, sub-species and hybrids have been identified up to now in the Maramures Mountains. These taxons belong to 311 genera and 88 families, that is more than a half of the total number of families within the whole Romanian flora. 
      The families that have the greatest number of taxons are as follows: Asteraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, Cyperaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Fabaceae, Brassicaceae si Orchidaceae. 
      Therefore, according to our current knowledge, 8 families incorporate almost half of the flora in these mountains; the other families are represented by a lower number of species (1-20). 

      In the rich flora of these mountains, there are numerous species that are very popular in the region and in the whole country, but there is also a significant number of flora rarities. 
      A great number of endemic elements (26) characteristic in the Carpathians can be seen on the park area, such as: Achillea schurii, Aconitum hosteanum, Aconitum moldavicum. Aconitum romanicum, Armeria pocutica, Campanula carpatica, Campanula rotundifolia ssp. polymorpha, Cardamine glanduligera, Cardammopsis neglecta, Centaurea carpatica, Chrysosplenium alpinum, Dianthus tenuitblius, Dianthus carthusianorum ssp. flora-andercoiani, Erysimum wittmannii ssp. transsilvanicum, Festuca carpatica, Genista tinctoria ssp. oligosperma, Heracleum carpaticum, Hieracium kotschyanum. Leucanthemum waldsteinii, Melanpyrum saxosum, Phyteuma tetramerum, Phyteunia vagnen. Poa granitica ssp. disparillis, Pulmonaria rubra ssp. filarszkyana, Silene nutans ssp. dubia, Trisetum fuscum. 
      The aforementioned elements formed during different phyto-historical stages and kept up to present. They enhance substantially the botanic value, which makes the flora of the Maramures Mountains so special. 

      Significant Flora. Forest types. Wood species 

      The continental - temperate climate in the concerned area, the hill and mountain relief on which specific soils developed - clay soils, cambium soils and spodium soils - supported the formation of certain types of forests such as beech, common oak and spruce, as well as different types of mixed forests. 

      The most representative forest types on the studied territory are as follows:

  • Mountain beech wood on skeletal soils with mull flora
  • Beech and coniferous forests on skeletal soil
  • Hill beech wood with mull flora
  • Beech wood with Festuca drymeia
  • Luzulla silvatica spruce
  • Festuca drymeia beech and coniferous forests
  • Mull flora hill beech wood on skeletal soils
  • Mull flora sessile oak forests
  • Graminaceous and Luzula luzuloides coast sessile oak forests
  • Vaccinum myrtililus spruce forests
  • Mull flora fir and beech forests

      An analysis of the forest system leads to the following results:

  • Pure spruce forests - approximately 22 % of the total surface
  • Spruce, fir and beech forests - approximately 20 % of the total surface
  • Fir and beech woods - approximately 9 % of the total surface
  • Mountain pure spruce - approximately 35 % of the total surface
  • Hill pure spruce - approximately 7 % of the total surface
  • Sessile oak - approximately 4 % of the total surface
  • Sessile oak - beech forests - approximately 3 % of the total surface

      Depending on the determining factors - climatic conditions, altitude, acclivity and display, soil type, lithologic sublayer and existing forestry vegetation, four significant vegetation layers were identified: hill sessile oak, beech wood and sessile oak - mountainous-pre-mountainous, coniferous and spruce forests.